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The n-type doping of Ge is a self-limiting process due to the formation of vacancy-donor complexes (D n V with n≤ 4) that deactivate the donors. This work unambiguously demonstrates that the dissolution of the dominating P 4 V clusters in heavily phosphorus-doped Ge epilayers can be achieved by millisecond-flash lamp annealing at about 1050 K. The P 4 V cluster dissolution increases the carrier concentration by more than three-fold together with a suppression of phosphorus diffusion. Electrochemical capacitance–voltage measurements in conjunction with secondary ion mass spectrometry, positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy and theoretical calculations enabled us to address and understand a fundamental problem that has hindered so far the full integration of Ge with complementary-metal-oxide-semiconductor technology.
IOP Publishing
Publication date: 
22 Dec 2020

Slawomir Prucnal, Maciej O Liedke, Xiaoshuang Wang, Maik Butterling, Matthias Posselt, Joachim Knoch, Horst Windgassen, Eric Hirschmann, Yonder Berencén, Lars Rebohle, Mao Wang, Enrico Napoltani, Jacopo Frigerio, Andrea Ballabio, Giovani Isella, René Hübner, Andreas Wagner, Hartmut Bracht, Manfred Helm, Shengqiang Zhou

Biblio References: 
Volume: 22 Issue: 12 Pages: 123036
New Journal of Physics